Children represent one of the most vulnerable patient groups. Consequences related to disease, injury, and treatment may affect children and families for years, sometimes decades. Thanks to improvements in lifestyle and income, preventive measures and new drugs, child health in Switzerland has improved significantly in the last years. Diseases in children that were common in the past, such as infections or cancer, nowadays often can be successfully prevented or treated. Despite these improvements, severe disease during childhood can still be life-threatening: approximately 1 in 100 children will require intensive care support during the first years of life. In Switzerland, 4 in 1000 children die before their fifth birthday due to inborn or acquired illness or accidents. Many children suffer from congenital conditions and other chronic illnesses, resulting in life-long dependency on health care support. Children have their entire life ahead: better health during childhood means better health in adulthood and possibly healthier future generations. In addition, common conditions like obesity or chronic lung conditions are a long-term burden to children and their families.